The Goal: Changing the mandatory break times

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This conflict can be found on page 151-153, 172-173 and 178. Jonah is working with the team at Bearington, looking for "hidden" capacity on the bottleneck processes. One suggestion is to change the break policy so that the machine is not idle during breaks. Alex explains that the policy is a part of a contract with the union.
The following cloud is build from Alex's perspective. It shows how he could have analyzed the situation to come up with solutions to his problem.

D: Make an exception to the union contract for mandatory break times
D': Comply with the union contract for mandatory break times
B: Utilize available capacity on bottleneck machines
C: Have a stable labor supply
A: Have a profitable company
Click on the icons on the arrows to see assumptions and injections
In order to Have a profitable company I must Utilize available capacity on bottleneck machines and in order to Utilize available capacity on bottleneck machines I must Make an exception to the union contract for mandatory break times. But, in order to Have a profitable company I must also Have a stable labor supply and in order to Have a stable labor supply I must Comply with the union contract for mandatory break times. I can't both Make an exception to the union contract for mandatory break times and Comply with the union contract for mandatory break times.
RelationAssumption(s)Injection(s)
D-D'1. There is no way that the break time cannot interfere with the machine set up
2. All employees who can set up the machine are unionized employees
1. If there are two teams capable of doing set ups, it might be possible to have one team come to work an hour ealier than the other team. This way the lunch breaks will be staggered. The contract only states that there should be a 30 min. break after 4 hours of work.
2. If Alex can hire competent workers who are not unionized, he can agree on a solution with these worker.

Note: Both of these injections might also be frowned upon by the union.
B-D1. The current union contract does not allow for exceptions in altering break times.1. As explained under D-D', there might be loopholes in the contract. However, going through loopholes might have negative consequences, that also violates Need C.
C-D'1. The union will not allow exceptions to the contract
2. Failing to comply with the union contract leads to sanctions (labor strike)
3. Additional capacity can not be provided quickly enough, in case of a strike
1. As Jonah states, the union has a stake in the company. If Alex can convience the union that the exception is a necessity for the company, the problem will be solved. By seeing this conflict from the unions perspective (in the form of a cloud), a solution can be found so both parties are comfortable.
2. Similar to injection 1., if Alex can make the exception, while being sure that no labor strike will occur, then there is no conflict. (This was the approach taken in the goal, the union was not happy about Alex explanation - comparing it to "scare tactics", but they decided not to challenge it)
3. If the plant can hire temporary workers to substitute the workers on strike, the risk of incurring a strike is less severe.
A-B1. The company has bottleneck machines1. Another suggestion by Jonah is to supplement the bottleneck with older equipment and getting the processes performed externally. If these alternatives are viable, and provide capacity enough to remove the bottlenecks, there will not be a need for changing the lunch break policy.
A-C1. The company is highly dependent on labor1. If labor can be substituted by capital to a much higher degree, the company will be less dependent on labor